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Brons: Facial Harmony
Brons, Rijnko

Facial Harmony
Standards for Orthognathic Surgery and Orthodontics

1. Auflage 1998
Buch
Hardcover, 166 Seiten, 154 Abbildungen
Sprache: Englisch
Fachgebiete: Oralchirurgie, Kieferorthopädie

Artikelnr.: 12951
ISBN 978-0-86715-331-6
Quintessence Publishing, Deutschland

Titel vergriffen.

Facial Harmony: Standards for Orthognathic Surgery and Orthodontics presents a system of esthetic diagnosis to achieve profile harmony, while preserving the characteristics of the individual facial contour. Every facial type has acceptable ranges of variation in the vertical and sagittal directions; outside these ranges, disharmony occurs. The book focuses on all parts of the facial profile, not merely the subnasal part, and on external (soft tissue) landmarks rather than skeletal landmarks.

The author's position is that each patient has his or her own harmonious form and that a Renaissance ideal should not be imposed. The standards for harmony presented offer specific guidelines for maxillofacial surgical specialists and orthodontists involved in the diagnosis and treatment of facial discordance.

Foreword 5
Preface 7
1 Introduction 13
2 Reflections on Facial Esthetics and Their Role in Treatment 17
Historical associations with beauty and ugliness 17
Current preoccupations with beauty 18
Limitations on esthetic improvement 19
Facial esthetics and profile harmony: Concept specification 21
- defining facial esthetics 21
- The importance of facial harmony 22
- Prerequisites for the rules for facial harmony 24
- Discerning the rules for facial harmony 24
- Applying the rules for facial harmony 25
Closing remarks 25
3 Reference Points and Reference Lines in the Analysis of the Facial Profile 27
Facial horizontals 27
A new individual reference line 28
The reference points and lines 30
4 Existing Guidelines for Vertical Facial Harmony 33
5 Existing Guidelines for Sagittal Facial Harmony 35
6 Rules for Vertical Profile harmony 41
Initial assumptions 42
The Golden Rule profile 42
Proportional standards derived from the Golden Rule profile 43
Applying the proportional standards 43
- The maxillary-nasal ratio 43
- The mandibular-nasal ratio representing the short-face boundary on the value of the mandibular height 45
- The mandibular-nasal ratio representing the long-face boundary on the value of the mandibular height 45
- The mandibular-nasal ratio representing the neutral-face boundary on the value of the mandibular height 45
- The harmonic range 46
- The height of the deepest point in the labiomental fold 46
The labio-nasal ratio and the location of the point stomion 47
Closing remarks 47
7 Rules for Sagittal Profile Harmony 51
The nasal incline 51
The ranges of variation for the orofacial inclines 53
- The upper-lip incline 53
- The lower-lip incline 55
- The mandibular incline 55
The relationships between the orofacial inclines 55
- The upper- and lower-lip inclines 55
- The upper-lip and mandibular inclines 57
- The lower-lip and mandibular inclines 57
- The mandibular incline and the depth of the labiomental fold 57
General discussion 57
Uniformity and regularity 59
Convex, straight, and concave orofacial contours 61
The nasofacial and columella inclines 61
The characteristic profiles 63
The nasal contour 63
Summary 65
8 Facial Types and Discordant Elements 69
Vertical facial types 69
Sagittal facial types 72
Discordant elements of the facial contour 78
- Discordant vertical elements 78
- Discordant sagittal elemts 78
Summary and closing remarks 82
9 Vertical Diagnostic Analysis 85
Preliminary analysis 85
Appropriate position for the point stomion and the acceptable maxillary height 87
Appropriate position of the lower lip 88
Complete diagnostic analysis of the vertical profile 90
10 Sagittal Diagnostic Analysis 93
Nasal profile analysis 93
Maxillary profile analysis 94
Mandibular profile analysis 94
- Evaluation of the lower-lip incline 95
- Evaluation of the mandibular incline and its relation to the depth of the labiomental fold 95
Clinical examples 96
11 Esthetic Objectives for the Vertical Dimension 107
Correction of the maxillary height 107
- Correction of a marginal maxillary height 107
- Correction of an excessive maxillary height 107
Correction of distraction and compression 110
- Distraction 110
- Compression 111
Correction of the mandibular height 113
12 Esthetic Treatment Objectives for the Sagittal Dimension 117
Sagittal ranges of variation 117
- The upper-lip incline 117
- The lower-lip incline 118
- The mandibular incline 118
- The relation between the lower- and upper-lip inclines 119
- The relation between the mandibular and upper-lip inclines 119
- The relation between the mandibular and lower-lip inclines 120
Guidelines for the development of esthetic treatment objectives 120
- Correction of the upper-lip incline 120
- Correction of the lower-lip incline 121
Correction of the mandibular incline 122
Correction of the relation between the mandibular incline and the depth of the labiomental fold 124
Clinical examples 125
13 Clinical examples 133
14 Chin corrections 145
Vertical corrections 146
- Vertical reduction 146
- Vertical augmentation 146
Sagittal corrections 146
- Sagittal reduction 146
- Sagittal augmentation 146
Additional considerations 146
Clinical examples 147
15 Conclusions and Discussion 159
16 Summary 161
References 165