International Journal of Periodontics & Restorative Dentistry 3/2015 Fachbeiträge auf höchstem Niveau und Farbabbildungen in einer Qualität, die ihresgleichen sucht, haben dieser elegant gestalteten Zeitschrift, die inzwischen in ihr 34. Erscheinungsjahr geht, internationales Renommee und eine treue Leserschaft gesichert. Themen sind die Beziehung zwischen einem gesunden Parodont und präzisen Restaurationen sowie die Implantatintegration auf Grundlage einer umfassenden Behandlungsplanung. Damit vermittelt die Zeitschrift Wissen, das sich in der täglichen Praxis direkt anwenden lässt. • Mit kostenlosem Zugang zur Online-Version recherchieren Abonnenten komfortabel online - auch rückwirkend ab 1992 im Archiv. • Kostenloser Zugang für Abonnenten zur App-Version. This rss-feed covers the latest table of contents including the abstracts. en Quintessence Publ. Comp. Inc. 2015-04-28 International Journal of Periodontics & Restorative Dentistry 3/2015 Editorial: Growing Your Knowledge Base and Practice with Specialist Referrals Solow, Roger A.<br>Page 303 - 303 Unintentional Root Fragment Retention in Proximity to Dental Implants: A Series of Six Human Case Reports Langer, Laureen / Langer, Burton / Salem, Daliah<br>Page 304 - 313<br>There has been renewed interest in intentionally placing dental implants in proximity to or in contact with tooth root fragments. In clinical practice, human teeth are usually extracted due to nonrestorable caries, vertical or horizontal root fractures, periodontal disease, or endodontic failure, which is commonly accompanied by inflammation and bacterial contamination. The aim of this case series is to present the adverse effects in humans of clinically undetected root-to-implant contact (CURIC), where implants were unintentionally placed in proximity to undetected retained root fragments. The adverse effects of small (3 to 5 mm) root fragments were detectible 6 to 48 months post implant placement. Three out of seven implants in six patients were removed due to severe coronal bone loss. This differs from retrograde peri-implantitis, where only the apical area of the implant is affected and the coronal portion remains integrated. The detrimental effect of root fragment-to-implant contact is described along with its clinical management. Based on the review of currently relevant data, mixed results have been documented regarding the success of dental implants in proximity to tooth-root fragments. Careful evaluation of long-term, postloading results in humans where hopeless teeth have been extracted due to infection and significant bone loss are required before intentional root fragment retention is considered a safe and reliable clinical option for implant placement. Consecutive Case Series of Monolithic and Minimally Veneered Zirconia Restorations on Teeth and Implants: Up to 68 Months Moscovitch, Michael<br>Page 314 - 323<br>The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of monolithic zirconia in function and minimally veneered zirconia (feldspathic ceramic, not in function, on the facial surface to enhance tooth esthetics or replace gingival structures) on both teeth and implants. This open-ended consecutive case series involved 238 patients between the ages of 16 and 92 years, 1,022 restoration units, and 365 cases in all categories of tooth and implant restorations in a private practice clinical environment for up to 68 months. The restoration parameters monitored in the patient base were fracture, cracking, or chipping of the zirconia structure and/or the minimally veneered feldspathic ceramic. There were no observed complications with respect to these parameters associated with any of the restorations included in this study. Tissue Engineering for Lateral Ridge Augmentation with Recombinant Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 Combination Therapy: A Case Report Mandelaris, George A. / Spagnoli, Daniel B. / Rosenfeld, Alan L. / McKee, James / Lu, Mei<br>Page 324 - 333<br>This case report describes a tissue-engineered reconstruction with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2/acellular collagen sponge (rhBMP-2/ ACS) + cancellous allograft and space maintenance via Medpor Contain mesh in the treatment of a patient requiring maxillary and mandibular horizontal ridge augmentation to enable implant placement. The patient underwent a previously unsuccessful corticocancellous bone graft at these sites. Multiple and contiguous sites in the maxilla and in the mandibular anterior, demonstrating advanced lateral ridge deficiencies, were managed using a tissue engineering approach as an alternative to autogenous bone harvesting. Four maxillary and three mandibular implants were placed 9 and 10 months, respectively, after tissue engineering reconstruction, and all were functioning successfully after 24 months of follow-up. Histomorphometric analysis of a bone core obtained at the time of the maxillary implant placement demonstrated a mean of 76.1% new vital bone formation, 22.2% marrow/cells, and 1.7% residual graft tissue. Tissue engineering for lateral ridge augmentation with combination therapy requires further research to determine predictability and limitations. Implant-Connected Versus Tooth-Connected Implant-Supported Partial Dentures: 2-Year Clinical and Radiographic Comparative Evaluation Mostafa, Tamer Mohamed Nasr / El-Sheikh, Mohamed M. / El-Fattah, Fadel El-Said Abd<br>Page 334 - 343<br>The purpose of this study was to clinically and radiographically compare implantconnected and tooth-connected implant-supported fixed-detachable mandibular partial dentures. Twenty partially edentulous patients (age range: 25 to 50 years) with mandibular Kennedy Class II configurations were equally divided into two groups receiving a three-unit, fixed-detachable, screw-retained partial denture. Group 1 comprised patients with unilateral missing mandibular molars and premolars. Two implants were placed at the mandibular first premolar and first molar areas. Group 2 comprised patients with missing mandibular molars and second premolars. An implant was placed at the mandibular first molar area, the first premolar was prepared, and a coping was cemented to the tooth with permanent cement. Each case was evaluated clinically and radiographically at baseline (partial denture insertion) and after 6, 12, and 24 months. Data were collected and statistically analyzed using repeated-measures one-way and twoway analysis of variance tests. There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups (P > .05). The implant-tooth-supported prosthesis provided an equally predictable treatment option compared to the totally implantsupported prosthesis in terms of implant survival and loss of marginal bone. Treatment of Severe Mucogingival Defects with a Combination of Strip Gingival Grafts and a Xenogeneic Collagen Matrix: A Prospective Case Series Study Urban, Istvan A. / Lozada, Jaime L. / Nagy, Katalin / Sanz, Mariano<br>Page 344 - 353<br>Large areas of mucogingival alterations may result from advanced regenerative procedures. This prospective case series study was performed to introduce and evaluate a surgical approach that combines the strip gingival graft technique with the use of a xenogeneic collagen matrix. The primary outcome measurement was the increase in keratinized tissue width from baseline to 12 months postprocedure. Twenty patients were enrolled, and they all completed the 12-month evaluation. All treated sites exhibited a significant gain in keratinized tissue at 12 months, with a mean width of 6.33 mm (SD: 2.16), while there was a 43% contraction of the grafted area at 6 months. Tissue dimensions remained stable between 6 and 12 months. The use of the combination graft was well accepted by the patients, with minimal morbidity according to the patients' low self-reported pain and the low utilization of pain medication. Coronally Advanced Flap for Root Coverage: A 2-Year Case Series Follow-up Paniagua, Blanca / Carrió, Neus / Santos, Antonio / Pascual, Andrés / Vicario, Mónica / Parma-Benfenati, Stefano / Nart, José<br>Page 354 - 361<br>The coronally advanced flap (CAF) has demonstrated controversial results in the treatment of gingival recession (GRs). The hypothesis of this study was that the CAF can partially reduce GR values over time. Root coverage (RC) in 24 Miller Class I GRs treated with a CAF by one experienced operator is presented with several periodontal parameters and postoperative morbidity. The mean percentage of RC was 80.35% at 3 months and 58.56% at 24 months; these differences were statistically significant. Keratinized gingival width, keratinized papillary gingival height, and gingival thickness were related to RC at 6 months. Postoperative pain was not statistically different over time. The CAF is not a predictable treatment for Miller Class I GRs after a 2-year follow-up period. Tissue Preservation Strategies for Fostering Long-Term Soft and Hard Tissue Stability Romanos, Georgios E.<br>Page 362 - 371<br>As placement of functionally stable dental implants has become routine, concerns have shifted to maintenance of crestal bone and soft tissue stability. This article proposes the development of a tissue preservation philosophy to avoid crestal bone loss and gingival recession and thus foster long-term esthetics around implants. Pillars of this philosophy must include avoidance or minimization of an implant-abutment microgap and micromovement, use of platform switching, appropriate implant positioning relative to the bone crest, and preservation of the papillae when placing both single and multiple implants. An Innovative Technique to Manage Sinus Membrane Perforations: Report of Two Cases Massei, Giampiero / Romano, Federica / Aimetti, Mario<br>Page 372 - 379<br>The most frequent intraoperative complication of maxillary sinus elevation procedures is the perforation of the sinus membrane, for which various protocols and grafting materials have been proposed in the literature. This article describes a novel suturing technique to close large sinus mucosa perforations. The technique is demonstrated through two clinical cases in which the sinus perforations occurred (1) in the course of a maxillary sinus elevation procedure and (2) after the removal of a cystic lesion. Bone grafting material and dental implants were placed simultaneously with the sinus repair. No infections occurred, and clinical and radiographic outcomes at 1 year postloading revealed successful implant osseointegration. Histologic Characterization of Human Extraction Sockets 3 Years After Grafting: A Case Report Schlee, Markus / Seitz, Oliver / Sader, Robert<br>Page 380 - 386<br>There is a need for the evaluation of the long-term response to xenogeneic extraction socket grafting. In this case report, two maxillary incisors were extracted, and the sockets were filled with a xenogeneic bone substitute to counteract postextraction volume loss. Three years after tooth extraction and ridge preservation, there was ample bone volume to insert two implants. Histologic and histomorphometric analysis of trephine drill biopsy specimens provided evidence of new bone formation and biologic integration of the bone substitute. The results confirm the benefit of ridge preservation techniques and give insight into the histologic long-term results after socket filling. A Randomized, Crossover Trial to Evaluate the Effect of Two Mouthrinses on Plaque Regrowth in the Absence of Brushing Nehme, Marc / Malpass, Katy / Butler, Andrew / Mason, Stephen / Kleber, Carl J. / Milleman, Jeffery L. / Milleman, Kimberly R.<br>Page 387 - 393<br>This study assessed the effects on plaque in the absence of brushing of two twice-daily mouthrinses, one with an enzymatic-based formulation (Biotène) and one with an antimicrobial chlorhexidine-based formulation (Peridex), and sterile water. Plaque levels were assessed in 23 participants using a 4-day, nonbrushing plaque regrowth model after twice-daily rinsing with sterile water (negative control), the enzyme-based mouthrinse, or the chlorhexidine-based mouthrinse (positive control). Peridex showed significantly greater prevention of plaque regrowth when compared with water and the enzyme-based Biotène mouthrinse. After 4 days, the enzyme-based mouthrinse was associated with a small but nonsignificant reduction in plaque regrowth compared with water. This study confirmed that Peridex is effective at prevention of plaque regrowth. Twice-daily rinsing with a Biotène formula that contained enzymes showed a small but nonsignificant trend toward prevention of plaque regrowth versus rinsing with water. Clinical Case Report on Treatment of Generalized Aggressive Periodontitis: 5-Year Follow-up Hu, Kai-Fang / Ho, Ya-Ping / Ho, Kun-Yen / Wu, Yi-Min / Wang, Wen-Chen / Chou, Yu-Hsiang<br>Page 394 - 400<br>Generalized aggressive periodontitis (GAgP) is a distinct type of periodontal disease associated with considerably more rapid periodontal tissue destruction than chronic periodontitis. This study presents the 5-year follow-up of a patient with GAgP. A 29-year-old man reported experiencing increasing gingival recession. He was treated using cause-related therapy, provisional splints, and flap surgery combined with allograft grafting and was followed up for 5 years. This case study shows that elimination of infectious microorganisms and meticulous long-term maintenance provide an effective treatment modality for aggressive periodontitis cases. This treatment modality can restore the masticatory function and provide the GAgP patient with improved quality of life. The Effects of Scanning Electron Microscopy Desiccation Preparation on Demineralized Dentin Surfaces Sterrett, John D. / Marks, Murray / Dunlap, John / Swann, Jerilyn / Schrock, Kathy<br>Page 402 - 408<br>This study assessed the effect various scanning electron microscopy (SEM) desiccation preparation techniques have on a tufted collagen surface produced using an acid-burnished (rubbed) demineralization application technique. Citric acid- soaked cotton pellets (30%) were burnished on the dentin treatment region, rinsed in water, and then fixed. Four SEM desiccation preparation techniques were employed: (1) air-dried from glutaraldehyde; (2) air-dried from ethanol; (3) critical point dried from liquid carbon dioxide (control); or (4) air-dried from tetramethylsilane. Control specimens all displayed a characteristic tufted fibril surface. In all experimental groups fibrils collapsed, forming an intact, undulating nondescript surface monolayer. All air-drying SEM desiccation preparation procedures appear to cause artifactual distortion of a tufted dentin collagen surface. Plasma Cell Gingivitis: Treatment with Chlorpheniramine Maleate Ranganathan, Aravindhan Thiruputkuzhi / Chandran, Chitraa R. / Prabhakar, Priya / Lakshmiganthan, Mahalingam / Parthasaradhi, Thakkalapati<br>Page 410 - 413<br>Plasma cell gingivitis is a benign lesion of unknown etiology characterized by massive and diffuse infiltration of plasma cells into the gingival connective tissue. Clinically, it can be seen as a diffuse, erythematous, and edematous swelling involving the marginal gingiva and extending into the attached gingiva. Although usually painless, the lesion can be esthetically unappealing, especially when anterior gingiva is involved. Although the usual line of management is removal of the offending agent, this report describes the treatment of plasma cell gingivitis with the topical application of chlorpheniramine maleate (25 mg) for a period of 10 days. Treatment of Peri-implant Bone Defects with Platelet-Rich Fibrin Hamzacebi, Burak / Oduncuoglu, Bahar / Alaaddinoglu, Emine Elif<br>Page 414 - 422<br>The objective of this study was to investigate and compare the clinical effectiveness of the application of platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) and conventional flap surgery for the treatment of peri-implant bone loss. Nineteen patients (8 women, 11 men) with peri-implant bone loss were randomly allocated to two groups, with the PRF group comprising patients who received fibrin scaffold and the control group made up of those who received only the access flap. At 3 and 6 months after surgery, respectively, the PRF group demonstrated higher mean probing depth reductions (2.41 ± 1.06 and 2.82 ± 1.03 mm versus 1.65 ± 1.02 and 2.05 ± 0.77 mm) and more gains in clinical attachment level (2.89 ± 1.01 and 3.31 ± 1.08 mm versus 1.43 ± 1.08 and 1.84 ± 0.81 mm) compared with the control group. In addition, the increase in the amount of keratinized mucosa from baseline to 6 months postoperatively was statistically significant for the PRF group (P < .001). Hence, the data from the current study led to the conclusion that PRF application in periimplant bone loss provided better clinical results than conventional flap surgery. Esthetic and Functional Rehabilitation of a Severely Compromised Central Incisor: An Interdisciplinary Approach Jepsen, Karin / Jaeger, Andreas / Jepsen, Søren<br>Page 35 - 43<br>This case report of a patient with a central incisor with rapid destruction of periodontal tissues associated with pathologic tooth migration illustrates the esthetic and functional reconstruction of a severely compromised tooth. An interdisciplinary approach, including resolution of the infection and regenerative periodontal surgery followed by orthodontic tooth movement, transformed a hopeless tooth with high mobility, attachment loss approaching the apex, and a Miller Class IV recession into a clinically healthy tooth. Treatment planning for periodontally involved anterior teeth with pathologic migration should consider a multidisciplinary approach for preservation of the natural dentition. Comparison of Ridge Expansion and Ridge Splitting Techniques for Narrow Alveolar Ridge in a Swine Cadaver Model Kao, Daniel W.K. / Fiorellini, Joseph P.<br>Page 44 - 49<br>Ridge splitting and ridge expansion have been used to expand narrow alveolar ridges. Piezosurgical ridge splitting involves separating the atrophic crests with piezosurgical inserts. Ridge expansion with motor-driven expanders was proposed to achieve the cortical dilation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of ridge gain by ridge expansion or ridge splitting. Eighteen (36 ramus) swine cadaver jaws were first divided into two groups-ridge expansion with a motor-driven expander or ridge splitting with the piezosurgical system. Then, either an active-tapping implant or nonactive-tapping cylinder-type implant was inserted. The crestal ridge diameter change was measured with a Boley gauge. The area of bony perforation, which includes fenestrations and dehiscences, was measured with a prefabricated reference grid. The results showed that there was no statistically significant difference in crestal width gain between groups. However, the combination of the motor-driven ridge expansion technique and the activetapping implant could be beneficial in significantly decreasing the bony perforation area.